English » Arterial Diseases
The Arterial System withstand the high pressure imposed by the Heart pumping oxygenated blood to the whole body. The outflow way of the oxygenated blood from the Heart is through the Aorta, major artery in the human body with a diameter of up to 5 cm (2.3 inches). This blood is distributed throughout the body by it's branches and segmentations. Since the Heart produces intermittent flow and pressure, the Aorta have an elastic feature that allow to withstand the pressure while maintaining the arterial flow during the diastole (Heart relaxation). At some points the stress against the arterial wall may lead to a rupture of the inner layer that, when associated to risk factors, lead to arterial illness.
Once distributed, the blood loses the pressure and flows through the capillaries where the nutrients and gas exchange occur. After passing through the capillaries, the blood returns in a low pressure regimen, being fractioned into different parts. A lighter one conducted by the veins back to the Heart and a heavier one conducted by the lymphatic system.
The artery might present 4 classic pathological complications that are dilation (Aneurisms), dislodgment of the inner layer (Dissection), narrowing or occlusion of its internal lumen leading to the lack of nutrition and oxygenation of the target tissues (ischemia) and finally its rupture leading to bleeding (hemorrhage).
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