Dr Paulino Souza Neto Vascular Surgery, Endovascular Surgery

English » Venous Diseases

The Venous System is constituted of 2 distinct parallel systems, the superficial located beneath the skin surrounded by fat tissue and above the muscles fascia and the profound located among the muscles.   Communicating those systems there are valved veins that directs the venous flow to the profound system. To do so, those veins pass through holes in the muscle fascia, therefore named perforators or communicants.

From the functional perspective, the venous blood returns to the Heart through the compression of the profound veins that, with the aid of directional valves, allow exclusively unidirectional flow. While the muscles relax, the superficial veins drain to the profound system, enhancing its filling and optimizing the venous pump performance. 

The veins may present 4 distinct complications that lead to a great amount of distinct diseases. Those are the formation of clots in its interior, with distinct denomination according if the superficial or the profound system was involved (Phlebitis or Deep Venous Thrombosis), Valve incompetence allowing reflow, Extrinsic Compression and Bleeding.